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We have already mentioned that there are direct, indirect and institutional forms of discrimination.  There are also other types of discrimination covered under the act. The Act itself refers to discrimination against people with protected characteristics which we will cover in other parts of the course. For now, we will look into other forms of discrimination.

Associative Discrimination is discrimination against a person because they have an association with someone with a protected characteristic.  The 2010 Act extended the application of this action to cover; age, disability, gender reassignment and sex; previously, it applied to only race, religion or belief, and sexual orientation.   Perceptive Discrimination is discrimination against a person because the discriminator thinks the person possesses a protected characteristic, even if they do not in actually do so.

The 2010 Act extended the application of this action to cover disability, gender reassignment and sex. Before, it had applied only to age, race, religion or belief and sexual orientation. Harassment is also covered by the 2010 Act and defines harassment as ‘unwanted conduct related to a relevant protected characteristic, which has the purpose or effect of violating an individual’s dignity or creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment for that individual'.

It applies to all the protected characteristics except for pregnancy, maternity, marriage and civil partnership.  An employee can also complain about behaviour they find offensive even if it is not directed at them. Third Party Harassment is covered and the Act makes employers potentially liable for harassment of their employees by people they do not employ.  An employer will only be liable if the harassment has occurred on at least two previous occasions, and if it knows that it has taken place and has not taken reasonable steps to prevent it from repeating.  Third party harassment applies to all the protected characteristics except for pregnancy, maternity, marriage and civil partnership.

Victimisation occurs when an employee is treated badly because they have made or supported a complaint or raised a grievance under the Equality Act; or because they are suspected of doing so.  If an employee has maliciously made or supported an untrue complaint they are not protected from victimisation.  Although we have talked about discrimination with regard to employment, it has much further reaching consequences than that. It also applies to you in everything you do or say in which you have interaction with another person.